The Municipality of Talisay is located within 120º 57’ 37.62” – 121º 3’ 1.12” Longitude and 14º 4’ 37.7” – 14º 8’ 32.39” Latitude of the northern part of Batangas. It is bounded by Tagaytay City in the North, Tanauan City in the East, Municipality of Laurel in the West, and Taal Lake in the South. The municipality of Talisay is bounded on the north by Tagaytay City, Laurel on the west, Tanauan on the east and Taal Lake on the south. It is located some 86 kilometers southward of Manila and about 74 kilometers northward of the Batangas provincial capitol.
a. Municipal Land Area
Talisay has a land area of 3, 797.33 hectares (GIS Computed by Geo Info metrics Solutions Co.), however, Talisay has boundary disputes with the neighboring Municipalities as well as with the City of Tagaytay which is beyond the realm of the planning work to resolve. Three boundary definitions come from at least three different sources of information: the Land Use Classification Map (LC3553) from NAMRIA which is 3, 325has, the 1993 NAMRIA Topographic and Political Boundaries Map which is 3, 799has and the 1994 PCTT Framework Plan which is 2, 822has.
b. Political Units
Talisay is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Batangas, Philippines. It is politically subdivided into 21 barangays, namely: Barangay Aya, Barangay Balas, Barangay Banga, Barangay Buco, Barangay Caloocan, Barangay Leynes, Barangay Miranda, Poblacion Barangay 1, Poblacion Barangay 2, Poblacion Barangay , Poblacion Barangay 4, Poblacion Barangay 5, Poblacion Barangay 6, Poblacion Barangay 7, Poblacion Barangay 8, Barangay Quiling, Barangay Sampaloc, Barangay San Guillermo, Barangay Santa Maria, BarangayTranca and Barangay Tumaway.
c. Natural and Physical Characteristics
Topography and Slopes
A rugged and undulating terrain is common on all slopes from the Tagaytay Ridge down to the lake below. Talisay is situated along the lakefront and its topography is longitudinal traversing many minor ridges and drainage basins (valleys). The terrain of Talisay can be best described as having a gently rolling to steeping undulating landform. Most of the lakefront areas are generally flat except for the westernmost barangay, Sampaloc where the drop is quite abrupt. The highest elevation, rising more than 560 meters, is located near the Tagaytay City boundary in northern Quiling. The slope of the area ranges from 0% to more than 50% slopes. About a quarter or 1,652 hectares of the municipality falls within the 12% maximum gradient for roads. About half or approximately 1, 949 hectares are within the maximum economically buildable slope range of 18%.
d. Climatological Data
The municipality of Talisay falls under the Type I category of the Philippine Climate Corona Classification, which has distinct or pronounced seasons, namely: dry and wet. The wet season starts from May to October. The average rainfall is 29.5 centimeters with an average wind velocity and average cloudiness or sky coverage of 7.1 knots in the directions of southwest and northeast. This is also characterized by typhoons coming from Eastern Luzon. During this period, wind velocity increases with extreme cloudiness. There occurs a maximum rainfall-causing flood in the locality. Intense coldness is felt by people to the detriment of their health. On the other hand, the dry season starts from November to April.
e. Meteorological Data
The average minimum temperature in Talisay is recorded at 22.7 ºC, and a maximum temperature of 32.1 ºC. Annual mean temperature: 27.4 ºC. The warmest months in Talisay are April and Amy, while the warmest months are July to September when rainfall is almost 3/5 of annual rains. The coldest months are December and January, when the lowest monthly mean temperatures have been recorded: 25.4 ºC (January), 25.8 ºC (December).
The annual average rainfall in the Province is 1, 906.80 millimeters, while the monthly average is 158.9 millimeters. Heavy rains occur during the months of June to November with an average monthly rainfall of 268.35 millimeters.
3. Wind patterns
Wind patterns Average wind velocity and average cloudiness or sky coverage of 7.1 knots in the directions of southwest and northeast.
e. Soil Types and Suitability
There are generally two types of soil areas. The Taal Loam is found along the lakeshore areas and the Tagaytay Loam in the steeper terrains. The Taal loam belongs to Taal soil series, the formation of which was influenced largely by the successive eruptions of Taal Volcano. The surface soil is generally grayish brown to light gray when dry and dark brown to nearly black when wet. The subsoil is light gray to grayish brown. The substratum is composed of loose sand and gravel in some places and tuffaceous and gravel in other places. This type of soil is easy to work on and is suitable to grow upland rice and other cash crops such as corn, sugar cane, coconut, citrus, coffee, pineapple, avocado and a variety of vegetables. Basically, Taal Loam is conducive to agricultural production. On the other hand, Tagaytay Loam contains fine, sandy materials, moderately friable, and easy to work on when moist. In an undisturbed condition, it breaks and becomes hard when dry.
Land Suitable/Land Capability
Certain portions of Talisay are very much suited for agriculture, especially growing crops and seedling/sapling production. Generally, land capability based on the data from BSWM shows low suitability for built uses due to its soil type, very steep (50 and above %), low-high elevation (5-522 meters), permeability, and perennial flooding incidence. It is classified as Class D, characterized as fairly good land and must be cultivated with extra caution; which requires careful management and complex conservation practices for safe cultivation. It is more suitable for pasture or forest
f. Groundwater Resources
Talisay is classified into two (2) general groundwater availability classifications:
- I-C (local and less productive aquifers)
- III-A (Rocks with limited potential, low to moderate permeability).
The eastern part of Talisay which includes the whole of Barangay Tumaway, Quiling, Tranca, and Aya, the eastern half of Barangay Miranda and Barangay Banga, and Poblacion 1-8 belongs to the I-C classifications. This region has less productive aquifers. Aquifers are wet underground layers of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. Further, I-C yields mostly about 2L/s but as high as 20L/s in some sites, with very low to moderate permeability. The western part of Talisay which include Barangay Sampaloc, Leynes, Caloocan, Buco, Balas, San Guillermo, Sta. Maria, a huge portion of Barangay Banga, and the western part of Barangay Miranda, fall under classification III-A. This means the area is not a potential sole source of drinking water, due to insufficient yield.
All in all, Talisay has a total of 29 man-made groundwater sources, including Tagaytay Highlands, Tagaytay Midlands, Highland’s International Golf Club Inc., Fil-estate Property Corp., the Municipality of Talisay and Barangay Waterworks, and various private individuals.
g. Surface Water, Drainage, and Catchment Areas
Local Rivers and Creeks
Talisay has two (2) rivers, and fifteen (15) creeks comprising its waterway system. The Caloocan River located at Brgy. Caloocan and the Bignay River located in Brgy. Aya. Creek systems all over Talisay comprise the following: Angasin Creek at Brgy. Aya, Quiling Creeks I & II, Tanza Creek at Begy. Tumaway, Zigaras Creek and Banga Creeks II, III & IV at Brgy. Banga, Sta. Maria Creeks I, II & III, Buco Creek, and Balas Creeks I and II. All draining to the Taal Lake.
A caldera lake has been formed partly by the collapse of a large volcanic crater and partly by subsidence. Subsequent volcanic activity has modified the morphometry of the lake. During the 10th century, it was connected to the sea at Balayan Bay by a wide channel, but an extremely powerful eruption of the Taal Volcano in 1754 rearranged the shape of the lake and narrowed the outlet to form the present-day Pansipit River, the lake’s only outflow, which leaves the lake in its southwest corner and travels about 10km to the sea. A high ridge, part of the crater wall, rises to 640 m above sea level to the northwest of the lake, upon which is located the chief town in the catchment area, Tagaytay City to the south and east, the land is more gently sloping.
The catchment area is largely deforested and given over to agriculture/agroforestry (e.g. coconut cultivation, coffee, cocoa, and cassava). Other areas are dominated by grassland (Imperata cylindrica) and there is some livestock raising. There is very little industry in the catchment area at present. Major threats to the lake include over-exploitation of fishery resources, inappropriate development for tourism and plans to use the lake water for irrigation and domestic water supply. There are nine (9) major water catchment areas identified for Talisay. Catchment No. 1 has been tagged as the largest with an estimated area of about 991.45 hectares located near the western portion of the municipality. The potential volume of water that can be impounded for this catchment area has been computed at 8, 917.70 cubic meter. The potential volume that can be impounded can supplement the town’s water supply needs in the future. A large portion of the catchment is beyond the northern boundary of Talisay extending all way up to the ridge to the north.
h. Geologic and Hydro-geologic Hazards
Based on historical accounts on Taal Volcano, there have been thirty-three (33) eruptions from 1572. Taal’s eruptions range from one (1) day to six (6) months. Its dormancy lasts from one (1) to sixty-two (62) years. Taal has a relatively shorter repose period between eruptions. Its more violent eruptions occurred in 1754, 1991 and 1965. The 1991 eruption had a zone of destruction as far as a 19-kilometer diameter of electrical discharges. There were also recorded vertical displacements of about 1 to 2 meters along the shoreline of the first sunken site of Tanauan – which is located in front of the present-day Talisay.
i. Climate and Typhoon Path
Based on a thirty-five-year record (1961-1985) climate study of the PAGASA station at Ambulong Climate Station in Tanauan, Talisay falls under Type 1 climate. This type is generally characterized by wet and dry seasons with fairly uniform temperatures. The annual average rainfall in the Province is 1, 906.80 millimeters, while the monthly average is 158.9 millimeters. Heavy rains occur during the months of June to November with an average monthly rainfall of 268.35 millimeters.
Talisay, over a 47-year period from 1948 to 1994, experienced about 9 tropical depressions, 23 tropical storms and 32 typhoons – for a total of 64 weather disturbances. Most of these weather anomalies generally form in the North Pacific Ocean region and move in a west-northwest direction towards the country.
j. Fault Line and Tsunami-prone Areas
The Manila Trench subduction zone is an active convergent plate margin between the South China Sea and the northern Philippines. Manila trench as a straight line from 13-18ºN which swerves abruptly to ESE at latitudes lower than 13ºN because of a collision of micro-continental fragments with Mindoro and Panay islands. The depth of the Manila Trench exceeds 5000m west of Manila Bay.
Distance from Poblacion to Taal Volcano Island Shore: 5.2 Km
From Taal Volcano Island Shore to Crater : 2.138 Km.
Taal Volcano, though considered the lowest volcano in the world, is one of the deadliest in the Philippines. Volcanologists consider Taal one of the world’s ten (10) deadliest volcanoes. Together with Mayon Volcano, Taal is one of the most observed because of the unpredictability of its behavior. From 1989 up to 1990 it showed signs of abnormality but was considered within background levels. However, PHIVOLCS is maintaining close watch. Based on historical accounts of Taal Volcano, there have been thirty-three (33) eruptions from 1572. Taal’s eruption range from one (1) day to six (6) months. Its dormancy lasts from one (1) to sixty-two (62) years. Taal has a relatively shorter repose period between eruptions. The more violent eruptions occurred in 1754, 1911, and 1965. The 1911 eruption had a zone of destruction as far as a 19-kilometer diameter of electrical discharges. There were also recorded vertical displacements of about 1 to 2 meters along the shoreline of the first sunken site of Tanauan – which is located in front of the present-day Talisay.
k. General Land and Water Use, Existing Land Area Use, Area per land use category and percentage to total land area
Generally, the predominant land use in Talisay is forest/non-agricultural, with a total area of 2, 396.56 hectares, or 46.34% of the total area; protected areas, which includes the Talisay portion of the Taal Volcano with 1, 376.20 has. (26.34%), and agriculture areas with 699.06 has. (13.52%). The remaining 13.53% consists of built-up areas, mostly consisting of Residential use with 406.97 hectares (7.87%), Commercial areas 184.3 has. (3.56%), Roads 44.21 has. (0.85%), Industrial areas - 0.98 has (0.02%), Agro-Industrial Areas – 10.56 has. (0.20%) Institutional 6.69 has. (0.13%), and recreational areas 0.17 have (0.003%). This also include: special uses – 4.48 has (0.087%), cemetery – 1.84 has. (0.036%), Buffer zones - 17.85 has. (0.345%), and tourism areas – 0.96 has. (0.02%).
Land Use Potential and Constraints
Talisay has 335.49 hectares of Forest Reserve in the Central-Northern part of the municipality occupying parts of Barangay Banga, Miranda, Tumaway, and Quiling. Also included is the volcano island of “Pulo of San Isidro & Tabla”, which consists of 1, 376.20 hectares of Protected Areas, which was declared through Presidential Proclamation 923, where Taal Volcano and the watershed areas were declared a protected landscape under the NIPAS Act of 1992. Taal Lake is a major aquatic resource, supplying nearby communities and Metro Manila with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus), Bangus (Chanos chanos), Maliputo (Caranx ignobilis) and Tawilis (Sardinella tawilis).
There exists 1, 399.70 hectares of alienable and disposable (A&D) lands. These include Agricultural areas and other built-up areas which include Agro-industrial areas, the Cemetery, Industrial areas, Recreational, Institutional, Residential, Tourism spots, and Special use areas.
l. Existing Environmental Conditions
Talisay scored 5 (very high) for its freshwater ecosystem management, and 4.1 (high-very high) in Urban Ecosystems Management in 2009 and 2010, according to the State of Local Development Electronic Report based on Environmental Governance. This is a study based on LGU self-assessment and an approximation of the state of socio-economic and environmental development in a locality.
The establishment and proliferation of fish cages are becoming a major problem in Talisay, along with nearby towns/municipalities within Taal Lake. The recent fish kill has become a nationwide phenomenon, and according to many studies conducted, the degradation of water quality in the lake was caused heavily by the ammonia released by the unconsumed fish feeds that end up at the bottom of the lake; heavy loads of organic sediments were brought to the surface, resulting in oxygen depletion and raising levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrite levels – contributing to the fish kills.
The degradation of these public goods in Talisay translates into a loss of productive assets and reduces the efficiency and resiliency of the services they provide. Harmful effects of environmental services degradation are often the principal drivers of poverty and social conflict.
m. Classification of Rivers/Bodies of Water within the Municipality
The river system in the province of Batangas services a populace of thousands with their drinking and agricultural water needs. The river system is classified as Class C beneficial for fishery production, and recreational and industrial water supply (DENR DAO #34).
n. Quality of rivers, waters, etc (polluted or not, degree of pollution)
Though classified as Class C, untreated household, agricultural, and agro-industrial/industrial wastes are directly discharged into the creeks/rivers. There are cases that some creeks, specifically in Barangay Miranda, and Banga dump their garbage on intermittent creeks, and some cases involve reclaiming land areas by covering up the creeks with unearthed soil and rock from other locations.
o. Probable Sources of Pollution
1. Industrial sources – Major industries in Talisay include the production of seedlings/saplings, beach resorts, agriculture, Ice plants, and commercial areas.
2. Domestic sources – Based on the data available at the PPDO Batangas (07202011), there are a total of 317 households without any toilets, with Brgy Buco having the highest number of households without toilets amounting to 117, followed by Brgy Miranda (50), and Brgy Quiling (43), among others. Human wastes are dumped directly at the creeks/rivers. All in all, it is only 4.6% of the total so it would contribute so much as a contributor to water pollution.
3. Air Pollution -- During the FGD, participants have reported the unpleasant smell coming from the piggeries and some animal industries, but that doesn’t contribute much to air pollution in the area.
4. Soil Pollution/Solid Waste Problem – Talisay has 2 waste collection vehicles that service the whole municipality: 1 for the 8 Poblacions, where most commercial establishments and the public market is located, and 1 for the rest of the Barangays. Talisay also has one (1) Materials Recovery Facility located at Brgy Tranca. The MRF covers only 1205 households and has a dumping area of 1.5 ha only.
The current garbage collection and disposal system is being implemented by the Municipal Administrator’s Office. It is manned by garbage collectors, motor pool personnel, (dump) truck operators, and street sweepers. However, even with the presence of a Solid Waste Collection Program, there is still rampant littering and dumping of solid wastes in roads, vacant lots, canals, esteros, and other public places, and the in all Barangays in Talisay.